Any ideas what this is and how it can be treated???
Could be laurel shot hole disease, you could trim out some of the worst bits. a fungicide may help.
Can the plant die of this? How is this caused?
Its caused or made worse by damp weather, also try not to wet the leaves if you water the plant. by the picture it doesn't look that bad, I have some laurels in pots and one of them has it much worse. It should not kill the plant .
Our hedge had the same problem and responded well to a seaweed feed and watering. Acts quicker than normal feed. Problem known as shot hole.